Secondary Sources

Evelyne Richard

The Most Important References in part 1

  • The Moon and Sixpence (p.3): The Moon and Sixpence is a novel written by William Somerset Maugham, which is both the author in the story who wrote this novel and the author in the story of The Razor’s Edge. It was first published in 1919, thus, 25 years before the publication of The Razor’s Edge. This book tells the story of a man who left his wife and children to pursue his career in art, a story which is based on the life of Paul Gaugin.
  • Paul Gaugin (p.3): Paul Gaugin (Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin) was a French post-Impressionist artist. His work did not become famous until his death in 1903.
  • Henry James (p.4): Henry James was an American writer who died in 1916. Most of his works were part of the literary realism, often showing an American main character encountering Europeans.
  • Charvet’s (p.6): Charvet is a French business specialized in luxury clothing that was very popular from 1850 to 1920.
  • Rue St. Guillaume, Paris (p. 6): A street in the very luxurious 7th arrondissement of Paris, where is also situated the Eiffel Tower.

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  • Buhl (p.6): A French-Alsatian community.
    • Chippendale (p.6, 18): Thomas Chippendale was an English cabinetmaker in the 18th century.  He was very popular among the aristocrats. Today, his work can be sold for as much as £2,729,250 (USD 5,324,763).
    • Watteau (p.6): Antoine Watteau was a French painter of the 18th century.
    • Fragonard (p.6): Jean-Honoré Nicolas Fragonard was a classical French painter of the 18th century, famous for his libertarian scenes such as Le Verrou.
    • Claude Lorraine (p.6): Claude Lorraine was a French painter in the 17th century.
    • Louis Quinze (p.7, 18): King of France from 1715 to 1774. Technically, he became in power at the age of 5, but he was truly introduced to his functions at 13 years old, in 1923. He was appreciated by the French community.
    • Madame de Pompadour (p.7): Member of the French court, she was the official mistress of Louis XV.
    • Flanders (p.8): A region in Belgium which was a battlefield region in WWI.
    • Argonne (p.8):  A region in France which was also a battlefield region in WWI.
    • Claridge’s (p.8):  A restaurant in London.
  • Hugh Walpole (p.9): English novelist who wrote Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill.
    • Hubert Henry Davies (p.9): British playwright who wrote The Mollusc.
    • Marcel Proust (p.10): Marcel Proust was a French writer of the 20th century. He was a member of the aristocratie since a very young age.
    • Episcopalian (p.11): The Episcopal Church is a form of Anglican Church.  
    • Duchesse de Vendrôme (p.11): Henriette Marie Charlotte Antoinette de Belgique of her real name, she was a member of the Belgian Royalty.
    • Papal chamberlain (p.12): Before 1968, it was a title given to members of the clergy or to a layperson by the Pope in order for them to officially become a member of the Papal court.
    • Holy Sepulchre (p.12): The order of the Holy Sepulchre is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood in Jerusalem since 1099 that is protected by the Holy See, another order of this type located in Rome.
    • Henry the Eighth (p. 12): Henry the Eighth was King of England and Ireland from 1509 to 1547. He is well known for his six marriages, including two of which ended by the execution of his wife.
    • The Field of the Cloth of Gold (p.12): The Field of the Cloth of Gold was a site in Northern France where King Henry the Eighth of England and King Francis I of France met from June 7th to June 24th in 1520.
    • Almanach de Gotha (p. 12): The Almanach de Gotha was a directory including the addresses of royal families, European nobility and major governmental, military and diplomatic corps.  
    • Queen Margherita (p. 15, 42): Queen Margherita of Savoy was the Queen of the Kingdom of Italy. She was married to Umberto I, King of Italy.
    • Quirinal (p.15): One of the Seven Hills of Rome, which are symbolic in Ancient Rome.
    • George the Second (p.18): King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1727 to 1760.
    • Yale (p.21): Yale is an American university located in New Haven, Connecticut.
    • Marvin (p.21): Marvin is a village in North Carolina, United States.
    • Dictionary of National Biography (p. 28): The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography is a book of reference on the important figures of the British history published in 1885.
    • William James’s Principles of Psychology (p. 30): Published in 1890, Principles of Psychology by William James, an American philosopher and psychologist,  is one of the most important text ever written in psychology. The main principles of this work are stream of consciousness, emotion, habit and will.
    • Avenue du Bois (p.36): Avenue situated near downtown Paris.
    • Touraine (p.36): Ancient French province now divided into three departments: Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher and Indre.
  • Duchesse d’Uzès (p.37): Marie Adrienne Anne Victurnienne Clémentine de Rochechouart de Mortemart, who became Duchesse d’Uzès by her marriage with Emmanuel de Crussol d’Uzès, was a rich French aristocrat. She lived from 1847 to 1933.
  • Montrachet (p.37): French Chardonnay.
  • La Rochefoucauld (p.39): Maxims written by François de La Rochefoucauld, an essayist and nobleman of the 17th century, regarding many topics related to human nature concerns.
  • Fatimas, Chesterfields, Camels and Lucky Strikes cigarettes (p.39): Brands of American cigarettes.
  • Boulevard St. Germain (p. 40): The Boulevard St. Germain is located in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements of Paris. It’s most famous location is the Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter.
  • Armours (p.45): Canadian meat company.
  • Swifts (p.45): American meat company.
  • McCormicks (p.45): McCormick was an American harvesting machine company.
  • Henry Ford (p.45): American businessman and industrialist who was the founder of Ford Motor Company.
  • All Saints’ Day/ Day of the Dead (p.49): Christian celebration to honor the Saints.
  • Jerries (p.50): Name for the Germans during WWI.

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